Glossary of terms - Chronic Kidney Disease | The Nephrology Cookbook | ERA

Aetiology: cause or causes behind a disease/ the study of the causes relating to a disease.

Anaemia: condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or of haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and extreme fatigue.

Anuria: when the kidneys stop producing urine.


Asthenia: extreme loss of strength or energy.

Atheroma: build up of fatty deposits in the inner layer of the arteries.

Atherosclerosis: disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries, resulting in the narrowing of the vessels.

Peritoneal Dialysis (PD): a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person’s abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): disease where kidney function gradually decreases over months or years.

Diabetes (Diabetes mellitus): A disease that occurs when your blood glucose is too high.

Erythropoietin (EPO): hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

Glycosylated haemoglobin: Glycated haemoglobin (or HbA1c) is a form of haemoglobin that is bound to glucose. It helps to identify a three-month average of blood glucose concentration. It serves as a diagnostic test and for glycaemic control.

Haemoglobin: protein in red blood cells that combines with oxygen to carry it around the body.

Hypercholesterolaemia: abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Hyperglycaemia: excess level of plasma glucose level.


Hyperkalaemia: high level of potassium in the blood.

Hyperlipideaemia: higher level of plasma lipids. It could be associated with a higher risk of Atherosclerosis.

Hypertension: also known as high blood pressure.

Hypertensive: person who suffers from high blood pressure.

Hyperuricemia: elevated level of uric acid in the blood.


Normotensive: blood pressure level is normal.

Oedema: a build-up of fluids in the body tissues. This can affect a part of or the entire body.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH):  is made by the parathyroid gland and helps to regulate the levels of calcium produced by the body.

Proteinuria: means that there are excess amounts of protein in the urine.

Synthesis of fatty acids endogenously (known as de novo lipogenesis, or DNL,) is a metabolic pathway for changing dietary carbohydrate (CHO) into fat.